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Mini Dragon Group (ages 6-7)


Volcano Tool V2 2 8: The Ultimate Guide to Flash, Unlock, Repair, and Backup Your Android Devices

There are 161 potentially active volcanoes in the U.S. The mission of the USGS Volcano Hazards Program is to enhance public safety and minimize social and economic disruption from volcanic unrest and eruption. We accomplish this by delivering effective forecasts, warnings, and information about volcano hazards based on scientific understanding of volcanic processes.

Volcano Tool V2 2 8

There are 161 potentially active volcanoes in the United States. USGS Volcano Observatories release regular notifications to communicate increases or decreases in volcanic activity and to explain any unusual or hazardous circumstances.

Volcano Observatory staff monitor, research, and issue formal notices of activity for volcanoes in assigned geographic areas. Scientists also assess volcano hazards and work with communities to prepare for volcanic eruptions.

Another year, another eruption! This discount box is our best selling one by a mile. 2 beautiful and educational books, one about the history of Icelandic eruptions and the other about the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption in the same area the current eruption is in. Also a brand new guide to the best restaurants, hotels, cafés and sights in Iceland along with a candy bar, some hot volcano salt and small piece of brand new lava!

This is extremely tasty Icelandic salt mixed with chilli to add heat! We are not duping anyone to believe it came from a volcano! It is just called that because it is hot! It did not come from a volcano!*If Volcano salt is sold out we will send Black Lava salt.

Finally, a piece of new lava comes free with every purchase of this box! They have been mindfully harvested in small numbers on our numerous trips to the volcano and will be added as long as we have any left.

Risks posed by volcanic eruptions continue to grow as populations near active volcanoes and air traffic over them continue to increase; however, in recent decades, enhanced technical capability of volcano observatories and their associated scientists to detect and analyze unrest and provide actionable information and eruption forecasts have reduced risk and minimized loss of life and property (Loughlin et al. 2015; Auker et al. 2013). This capability carries with it the responsibility to construct the best possible practices of monitoring, data interpretation, and hazard communication to support risk-mitigation decisions, such as whether and when to evacuate populations and/or restrict travel and commerce in order to save lives and property (Bazelon 1979; Miller and Jolly 2014; Papale 2017, Bretton et al. 2018a, b).

The basis for interpretation of monitoring data with respect to near-term hazards remains largely empirical, although forecasts are becoming more quantitative based on an improved understanding of the physics of causative processes (Sparks 2003) and the use of statistical methods (e.g., Newhall and Hoblitt 2002; Marzocchi and Bebbington 2012). With the exception of professional response teams (Pallister 2015) and observatory-based responders at especially active volcanoes, critical experience may come first-hand only a few times during the career of an individual observatory-based scientist. However, much of the advance in near-term eruption forecasting and risk mitigation depends upon relating monitoring observations to volcanic outcomes (e.g., McNutt 1996; Chouet 1996; Iguchi et al. 2008; Aiuppa et al. 2010; White and McCausland, 2016, White and McCausland 2019; Segall 2013; Selva et al. 2012) and in effective communication of hazards during crises (e.g., Ishimine 2016; Andreastuti et al. 2015; Fearnley et al., 2018a and references therein). It is therefore important that lessons learned be shared internationally, so that a consensus on, and a useful guide for, volcano observatory best practices can be developed.

Although there are many regularly held meetings that encompass important themes of volcanology, such as the General Assembly of IAVCEI, and meetings of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the European Geophysical Union (EGU), and the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS); these naturally place an emphasis on science, not on observatory practices or operations. CoV (Cities on Volcanoes) meetings organized by IAVCEI offer a time for discussing more directly issues of relevance in volcanic hazards, risk evaluations and broader social impacts of volcanism. Yet, none of those meetings is focused on illuminating best practices for daily operations of volcano observatories. VOBP meetings fill that gap, as they are specifically aimed at volcano observatories and their cooperating partners. According to their aims, the discussion at VOBP meetings is kept at the practical level, with the aim of identifying operational needs and sharing best practices to meet those needs. Every effort has been made to include as much of the observatory membership of the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) as possible. Although not complete, the workshops probably achieved the most participation by WOVO members of any meetings to date (Fig. 1; Additional file 1). The objective is to develop synergy among volcano hazards programs and their observatories internationally, so as to more rapidly and broadly advance the field of applied volcanology.

The circumstances in which volcano observatories find themselves, including risk governance structure, societal expectations, and resources upon which they can draw, vary greatly. In spite of this diversity, in many cases general principles of observatory best practices have been identified. In other cases, multiple practices to meet a common goal have been identified.

Volcano observatories have existed since the founding of the Vesuvius Volcano Observatory in 1841 as a central collection point for synthesis and interpretation of geophysical monitoring data and other observations. As such, they are institutions created to provide as informed and clear an insight as possible into the hazards presented by a volcano or group of volcanoes. Through modern technology, an observatory no longer needs to be contained within a building, although many are. It nevertheless remains a group of people, however widely distributed, dedicated to their tasks of monitoring, observing, analyzing and interpreting various real-time and near-real-time data, warning of unrest, eruption or changes of activity from one or more volcanoes, and assessing longer-term hazards.

As used here, the communication passed from an observatory to governmental authorities and the public regarding the probability of future volcanic events constitutes a forecast. A principal goal for a volcano observatory is to accurately communicate results of scientific evaluations and forecasts together with the associated uncertainties. The most critical kind of forecast, because it may require immediate action, is a near-term forecast addressing possible events in the coming hours, days, weeks, or a few months. For a major eruption, the primary mitigating action for emergency managers is to evacuate and restrict access to hazardous zones, and to notify aviation authorities of an impending threat of ash clouds and ashfall. Issuing a forecast too early during an episode of growing unrest may result in unnecessary hardship and economic loss, besides substantially increasing the uncertainty of the forecast. A forecast issued too late is one that provides inadequate time for effective communication and mitigation. In comparison, long-term forecasts are included in volcano hazard assessments, along with information on potential hazards and impact areas (typically shown in volcanic hazard zonation maps; Crandell et al. 1984). Long-term hazard assessments are useful both for land-use planning decisions and as an essential background and framework for use in near-term forecasting.

Although there have been disastrous failures to warn of volcanic activity, increasingly volcano observatories have been responsible for near-term forecasts that (along with many other factors, e.g., community education, mitigation actions by civil authorities, etc.) have saved a minimum of 50,000 lives during the twentieth Century (Auker et al. 2013). As with other fields of practice, it has become evident that a concerted effort to share and evaluate experiences and to identify common principles of operation improves performance. This is especially true for volcano observatories, because often the experience for a single observatory may be gained in events spaced many years apart, whereas globally, eruptions are monitored by observatories many times per year. Such sharing has occurred at scientific meetings for many years, but the VOBP workshops are the first in decades in which international scientists focused on observatory practices have met. What follows is a distillation of important principles that emerged from these discussions.

Seventy-two participants representing volcano observatories and partner organizations from 20 nations participated in VOBP3, which was held in Vancouver, USA (Fig. 2; Additional file 1). Ten graduate students from nearby universities observed the proceedings.

The long-term eruptive history of a volcano or a volcanic region and the distribution of the products of past eruptions are the first and most basic criteria used for estimating the probability of future eruptions and their areas of impact (e.g., Shimozuru 1983; Sudradjat 1986; Lirer et al. 2001; Hall et al. 1999; Becerril et al. 2014; Clynne et al. 2012) to name but a few of the hundreds of examples). Most long-term hazard assessments and zonation maps are based primarily on these types of data. The eruptive history can also be used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions and their impacts. An example of such an analysis is that of Nathenson et al. (2012), who fit several types of probability distributions to records of eruptions at the Lassen volcanic center and to records of large eruptions throughout the Cascade Range of the U.S.A. These distributions were used to calculate the probability of subsequent eruptions in the next year and the annual probability of ashfall throughout the region. In another example, information from past eruptions was used by Sandri et al. (2012) in a probabilistic assessment of potential base-surge impacts for Auckland, New Zealand. They used a Bayesian Event Tree (BET) approach and carried the resulting probabilistic assessment through to support cost-benefit analysis in support of decisions for both long- and near-term mitigation.


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