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Nadaga Kalai In Tamil 82.pdf


Nadaga Kalai in Tamil




Nadaga Kalai, or the art of drama, is one of the oldest and most vibrant forms of expression in Tamil culture. It has its roots in the ancient Tamil traditions of storytelling, music, dance, and ritual. Nadaga Kalai encompasses various genres and styles of theatrical performance, ranging from the classical to the modern, from the religious to the secular, from the folk to the urban. Nadaga Kalai reflects the rich and diverse history, society, and identity of the Tamil people.


History of Nadaga Kalai




The origin of Nadaga Kalai can be traced back to the prehistoric times, when the primitive Tamils performed dances and songs to celebrate their hunting and harvesting activities. These dances and songs evolved into a form of entertainment and communication, known as Koothu. Koothu was a collective term for various types of folk theatre that involved storytelling, music, dance, and mime. Koothu was performed in open spaces, such as village squares, temple courtyards, or street corners. The performers wore simple costumes and masks, and used props such as sticks, drums, or puppets. The themes of Koothu were based on the myths, legends, epics, and history of the Tamils. Koothu was also a medium of social criticism and satire, as it often mocked the follies and vices of the powerful and the privileged.


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Koothu gradually developed into a more sophisticated and elaborate form of theatre, known as Nadagam. Nadagam was a term for various types of classical drama that involved dialogue, poetry, music, dance, and spectacle. Nadagam was performed on a stage that was divided into three sections: the front stage (Mun Arangam), where the main action took place; the back stage (Pin Arangam), where the musicians and singers were seated; and the curtain stage (Thirai Arangam), where special effects were created. The performers wore elaborate costumes and makeup, and used props such as swords, crowns, or jewels. The themes of Nadagam were based on the literary works of the ancient Tamils, such as the Sangam poetry, the Silappathikaram, the Manimekalai, or the Thirukkural. Nadagam was also a medium of moral instruction and aesthetic pleasure, as it depicted the virtues and values of the Tamils.


Nadagam underwent several changes and innovations over time, influenced by various factors such as foreign invasions, colonial rule, social movements, and technological advancements. Some of these changes include:


  • The introduction of Persian and Islamic elements by the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire in the 13th-17th centuries.



  • The introduction of European elements by the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British in the 16th-19th centuries.



  • The introduction of Sanskrit elements by the Brahminical revivalism in the 18th-19th centuries.



  • The introduction of modern elements by the Indian independence movement and the Dravidian movement in the 20th century.



  • The introduction of global elements by the mass media and the diaspora in the 21st century.





Types of Nadaga Kalai




Nadaga Kalai can be classified into two major categories: Marabu Vazhi Nadagam (traditional drama) and Naveena Nadagam (modern drama). Marabu Vazhi Nadagam refers to the classical forms of drama that follow the conventions and rules established by the ancient Tamil texts. Some examples of Marabu Vazhi Nadagam are:


  • Kattaikkuttu: A rural form of drama that is performed throughout the night during festivals or auspicious occasions. It is characterized by its fast-paced dialogue, energetic dance movements, loud music, colorful costumes, and comic interludes. The themes are based on Hindu epics such as Ramayana or Mahabharata.



  • Therukkuttu: A urban form of drama that is performed on a mobile stage that is carried by a cart or a vehicle. It is characterized by its realistic dialogue, graceful dance movements, melodious music, simple costumes, and social commentary. The themes are based on contemporary issues such as politics, religion, or gender.



  • Bhagavata Mela: A devotional form of drama that is performed in the temples of Melattur, Saliyamangalam, and other places in Tamil Nadu. It is characterized by its refined dialogue, classical dance movements, Carnatic music, elaborate costumes, and religious symbolism. The themes are based on the Puranas or the Bhagavata Purana.





Naveena Nadagam refers to the modern forms of drama that break away from the conventions and rules established by the ancient Tamil texts. Some examples of Naveena Nadagam are:


  • Proscenium Theatre: A westernized form of drama that is performed on a stage that is separated from the audience by a curtain or a wall. It is characterized by its realistic dialogue, naturalistic acting, dramatic lighting, elaborate sets, and sound effects. The themes are based on the literary works of the modern Tamil writers, such as Bharathidasan, Pudhumaipithan, or Jayakanthan.



  • Street Theatre: A radical form of drama that is performed in public places such as streets, parks, or markets. It is characterized by its improvised dialogue, expressive acting, minimal music, simple props, and direct interaction with the audience. The themes are based on the social issues such as poverty, corruption, or oppression.



  • Experimental Theatre: A creative form of drama that is performed in alternative spaces such as studios, galleries, or warehouses. It is characterized by its abstract dialogue, symbolic acting, eclectic music, innovative props, and multimedia effects. The themes are based on the artistic visions of the experimental Tamil directors, such as Koothu-p-pattarai, Pralayan, or Perch.





Conclusion




Nadaga Kalai in Tamil is a rich and diverse art form that has a long and glorious history. It has evolved and adapted to the changing times and contexts, while retaining its unique identity and essence. Nadaga Kalai in Tamil is a source of entertainment and education for the Tamil people, as well as a medium of expression and empowerment for the Tamil artists. Nadaga Kalai in Tamil is a living and thriving art form that continues to inspire and influence the Tamil culture and society.


References:



  • [Nadaga Kalai - நடகக்கல TNPSC and TET Tamil Study Notes]



  • [தமழர் நடகக் கல - தமழ் வக்கப்பீடய]



  • [தமழ் நடக வரலற - தமழ் வக்கப்பீடய]






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